reading

1.

Children’s play

Uses of children’s play • building a ‘magical kingdom’ may help develop 1 • board games involve 2 and turn-taking

Recent changes affecting children’s play • populations of 3 have grown • opportunities for free play are limited due to — fear of 4 — fear of 5 — increased 6 in schools

International policies on children’s play • it is difficult to find 7 to support new policies • research needs to study the impact of play on the rest of the child’s 8

2. Children with good self-control are known to be likely to do well at school later

3. The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical

4. Playing with dolls was found to benefit girls’ writing more than boys’ writing

5. Children had problems thinking up ideas when they first created the story with

6. People nowadays regard children’s play as less significant than they did in the past

7.

  • a description of how people misused a bike-sharing scheme
  • an explanation of why a proposed bike-sharing scheme was turned down
  • a reference to a person being unable to profit from their work
  • an explanation of the potential savings a bike-sharing scheme would bring
  • a reference to the problems a bike-sharing scheme was intended to solve

8. Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about the Amsterdam bike-sharing scheme of 1999?

9. Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about Amsterdam today?

10. Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 23—26 on your answer sheet.

The first urban bike-sharing scheme

The first bike-sharing scheme was the idea of the Dutch group Provo. The people who belonged to this group were 23 . They were concerned about damage to the environment and about 24 , and believed that the bike-sharing scheme would draw attention to these issues. As well as painting some bikes white, they handed out 25   that condemned the use of cars.

However, the scheme was not a great success: almost as quickly as Provo left the bikes around the city, the 26 . took them away. According to

Schimmelpennink, the scheme was intended to be symbolic. The idea was to get people thinking about the issues.

11. Look at the following statements (Questions 27—31) and //›e list of researchers below. Match each statement with the correct researcher, A—F.Write the correct letter, A—F, in boxes 27—31 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.
  • Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to
  • The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different
employer.
  • Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their
  • Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is
  • Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change
Pfeffer
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

Deery
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

Lucas
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

Maroudas et at.
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

Ng and Sorensen
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

Enz and Siguaw
Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

Unselect

Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

Unselect

Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain

Unselect

Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

Unselect

NA

Unselect

28 The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Unselect

12.

  • One reason for high staff turnover in the hospitality industry is poor

13.

  • Research has shown that staff have a tendency to dislike their

14.

  • An improvement in working conditions and job security makes staff satisfied with their

15.

  • Staff should be allowed to choose when they take breaks during the working

16. Fun at work

Tews, Michel and Stafford carried out research on staff in an American chain of 36  . They discovered that activities designed for staff to have fun improved their 37  , and that management involvement led to lower staff 38  .  They also found that the activities needed to fit with both the company’s 39     and the 40     of the A balance was required between a degree of freedom and maintaining work standards.